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Introduction

Papers

Electron Physics 
Presented
For the First Time
is
A Systematic Basis for Structures
for
the Tiniest Particles
(Electrons, Neutrinos, & Quarks)
and for
How They Build
the
Largest Particles.

•Fractally Complex Vortex Gyres, Scaled from Lab Data,   Serve as Microquanta that Make Up Particles.
•This Provides Structural Mechanisms, Under a
  New Mass/Charge Power Law, for
:
        •Charge and Mass
        •Strong and Weak Forces
        •"Color", "Strangeness", etc.
        •The Quantization Angle Arccos 1/√3
        •Anti-matter, Decay, Proton Stability
        •Neutrino Oscillation and Stability
        •The Photon as a Special Neutrino
        •Proliferated Baryon/Meson Series
        •The Linking Together of Atomic Neclei
•All This Leads to a New Systematic Classification of the
  Particles that Have Mass.

Electron Physics
INTRODUCTIVE SUMMARY

Preface   This website assembles a series of papers which present an
underlying causal and non-probabilistic basis for quantum mechanics
(QM) in a new fundamental paradigm of quantized masses, forms, and
forces of subatomic particles. The paradigm leads to modifying the
very fruitful QM science to resolve its present major uncertainties,
remove its many mysteries, and replace its multiple arbitrary factors.
Some of these modifications might take place immediately. Others
may evolve over an extended period of study and experimental
refinement. This basic paradigm and its equations arise directly from
the Particle Data Group (PDG) biennial reports of the internationally
accredited empirical QM particle data, plus new lab data on scaled
quantal substructures.


The best introduction to these papers is the summary paper (Paper 4)
entitled Striking Correspondences between Quantum Mechanics
and a Novel Complex Vortical Gyre Microquantum Structure
Paradigm for Leptons/Quarks/Hadrons with a Related Power
Law
(The power law defines masses, which fit with structural force
equations.) This paper was written as a progress review, a guide to
how all the papers fit together, both within themselves and with
features of quantum mechanics. The paper precisely and specificly
condenses two dozen primary points at which this new paradigm
systematicly structures the massive particles from only two new
mirror-image quanta, matches QM, resolves outstanding QM
uncertainties, and supplies causal mechanisms for QM mysteries,
including such features as:

  • The excessively uncertain QM masses of quarks.
  • What electron charge and quark charge could be.
  • How charge force and "strong" force can be generated.
  • Why electrons have two different apparent diameters.
  • Why neutrinos can "oscillate" in mass.
  • Why spins sum at arccos 1/v3 from an axis.
  • What inherent differences required "color" identification tags
        on quarks in Quantum Chromodynamics.
  • How ephemeral quark structures build one, but only one,
        stable baryon, the proton, which then can through a quark
        substructure stabilize the only marginally (and causally)
        unstable baryon, the neutron, in larger stable atomic nuclei.
  • Why quarks make baryon and meson series necessary. (Etc.)
    To grasp this entire novel paradigm of the massive particles quickly, in
    its major specifics and overall coherence, read this summary paper
    first. Then return to read the general overview summary of each
    paper presented below. Subsequently it will not matter in what order
    the papers themselves are read (only #1,2, &9 are in proper order.)

    Introduction   Preliminary study for the papers presented on this
    website began with the many puzzling aspects of the electron, but
    then moved into the interrelations of the subatomic particles generally.
    It became clear that the electron is a key particle in quantifying the
    charge and mass relations of all the particles, as well as their possible
    structures. Considering these mutual constraints between particles led
    to a comprehensive substructural paradigm as a single continuum
    system for all leptons and quarks, as well as the known proliferation of
    hadrons that quarks compose, collision debris, the simpler composite
    atomic nuclei that often act as particles, and their inherent capabilities
    as components of larger nuclei. The first basic novel concept is that
    the electron is composed of 6 quasi-fractally complex, turbulent, and
    complexly interactive, co-rotating vortex gyres with an empiricly
    quantified internal viscous driving process that is significantly different
    from the ordinary gravity drain vortex. Pairs of the gyres circulate in
    sphericly concentric orbits.he gyre paradigm extends alike to all subatomic particles, including the quarks which make up a second novel 3D triplet structure in the proton and neutron (as prototype baryons) with built-in links that facilitate baryon grouping as components of the nucleus of each atom.The paradigm acts through a new empirical power law on the number of component gyres which relates the mass energy of the single vortical gyre to the mass and charge of each of the subatomic particles. In total the website proposes an entirely new way to comprehend the basic "elements" of the universe that is compatible with quantum mechanics (QM) but does not require a detailed working knowledge of its complexities. In fact we have here a structural paradigm on which the elaborate abstractions of QM might be supported and augmented with more directly causal mechanisms, and which yields some new results where QM has knowingly faltered, especially on the electron size and structure and the masses of the quarks and neutrinos.

    The gyres involved in particles cannot be like the smoothly spiraled funnel of an ordinary gravity-driven pressure vortex at an exit hole from a tub of water. Nor can they be like a momentum-driven vortex at the edge of a strong current in the air. They can only be centrally driven in a fluid by a deeply immersed, viscous rotation source (like the heat engine at the center of a hurricane or tornado.) Such 3D empiricly measured gyres driven by cones exhibit symmetric angular zones of fractally distinctive forces that scale to a first self-consistent structural model of the electron/positron without singularities, including that of its quasi-infinite empirical lifetime energy. This electron must eventually run down like any real structure. In the meantime it supportively matches the quantum mechanical requirements for its known particle functions, but also provides a mechanism for particle entanglement as a now established denial of an absolute and complete singularity at c.

    However, the electron is only the oldest known, and most often humanly controlled, separate particle of the three that QM can at present only designate as cosmicly pre-existing. Aside from the symmetric beauty and structural effectiveness of this vortical electron concept, its strength comes from its similar suitability for the other QM leptons, especially the neutrinos, and for the quarks. In fact the power law requirement for some such microquantum of charged mass (which is a very generalized description of the most limited and basic factors of particle function that a gyre can supply) arises directly from the international Particle Data Group's biennial (PDG) Summary Tables of QM particle charge and mass for quarks and the baryons they construct.

    As presented herein, the gyre paradigm thus extends alike to all subatomic particles, including the quarks which make up the proton and neutron components of the nucleus of each atom. The resulting structure of the quark components gives rise to the structural linkages of the entire nucleus. The same basic mass law asymptoticly trends toward zero in an exponential extension of the law for mass interactions at these largest mass levels. As a result there is a subatomic structural continuum from the smallest cosmic microneutrinos to the atomic nucleus within the electron orbit shells.

    The papers presented herein are comprised of the following items:

    • Item 1 - A spherical electron structure of coaxial pairs of 6 fractally complex, corotating vortex gyres (Item 5 below.) that strongly interact with mutual attraction in synchronized orthogonal orbits around a common center in accordance with a universal power law equation (Items 2 & 3 below.) --- This equation relates the empirical number and sum of component masses to the mass (with conserved charge) for every type of subatomic particle. The mutual interaction generates the total mass energy of the electron, its spin around a summation axis at arccos 1/√3 from each of the three orbital axes, and an even exterior distribution of the distinctive charge force from the spinning and orbitally revolving outward facing bases of the conic gyres with their turbulent base subgyres. (There is none of the last century's Poincare' internal charge repulsion stress.) The antiparticle positron charge force arises likewise from the opposite sense of vortical and orbital corotation of its gyres. (See Paper 7 in condensed and full formats.)

    •Item 2 - The origin of the universal law of particle mass structure from consideration of the PDG data on the 6 types of component empirical quarks and the empirical baryons and mesons which the quarks compose. --- In this more massive range of hadron particles and sums of unlike quark component masses, the law acts exponentially on the component number, asymptoticly rising toward
    Nc5 with reducing mass of the summed smallest up and down quarks in the relatively small proton and neutron baryons and π mesons. In the even less massive average range of lepton and quark (LQ) particles the (initially generalized) components mc of positive and negative gyre masses are summed as Nc uniform microquantal components mu at 10.9525 electron-Volts (eV) of mass eergy each. The sum term then collects to Nc6, and the equation operates as a power law with a corrective factor for charged n± (vs neutral) pairs of n total pairs of gyres to generate interaction masses mp of the LQ particles with at least two obligatory quark masses within the large PDG uncertainties on masses of each of the 6 types of quarks. Thus in quarks/antiquarks, neutrinos, and charged leptons (electrons, etc.):

    mp = (2 mu/3) (0.5 + n±/n) Nc6

    Combinations of the dual quark masses account exactly in the exponential form of the law for the proliferated series of baryons in a new classification of all the massive subatomic particles (except bosons.) Impact oscillations of neutrino masses are also accounted for. (See published Papers 1 and 2. Note: These two introductory papers were originally based entirely on the PDG empirical data. Therefore, these papers did not include the concept of a vortex gyre, but simply used generalized microquanta. It is in the electron paper that the gyre is established as the ultimate optimum mass microquantum with inherent charge force due to gyre rotation, and that meaning of microquantum should now be understood in all these papers.)

    •Item 3 - A new paradigm for the structure of spherical quarks from such microquantal uniform components orbitally interacting under the power law as in the electron. --- This quark paradigm is then extended to structures with the continued strong force properties inside protons, neutrons, and other baryons (in their baryon series) under the exponential form of the law:

    mp = Ncy Σmc .

    This structure has 3 adjacent quark spheres with one orbital axis of each perpendicular to the plane of their contacts and with their summation axes aligned to a common point at the complement to arccos 1/√3 above that plane on a consequent baryon summation axis. A gyre orbit for each quark in the plane of its own summation equator is extended either circularly or elliptically (as balanced by interactive forces) to lock these orbit planes in an orthogonal 3D corner around the baryon sum axis through the corner point. These corners of self-adjusting strong force orbits are irregularly sphere-like and join in sphere-like atomic nuclear boxes (for tritium or alpha particles), ellipsoids, and the like. In this last stage of large nuclear assembly between baryon contact triads (or in forming baryons from the largest quarks) the quark gyres are more widely spaced, the interaction exponent y trends more toward zero, and the nuclear mass factor trends toward one. (See Paper 3.)

    •Item 4 - A similar paradigm of meson structures in two-plane corners, etc., from quarks or similarly charged spherical fragments of quarks after destructive impacts on baryons. --- As in the PDG data, the larger mesons require two, four, or six quarks or power law fragments to assemble under the exponential form of the law, including components for the heavier light unflavored mesons from destroyed strange baryons. Also at times quarks can break into several quarklets and neutrinos; e.g., Nucleon N(1700) could reassemble as either of the two strange quark masses plus typical other fragments. This accounts for all the light mesons and for all fragments of any quark involved in their assembly. In reverse all parts of baryons destroyed by impacts can be tracked to mesons. (See Paper 3 also.)

    •Item 5 - A quantified and validatable initial documentation of widely scalable experimental mutual forces between symmetric and limited asymmetric pairs of paradigmaticly suitable, viscously driven, turbulent, immersed (and surface) conic vortices under multiply varied conditions of gyre size, flow velocity, viscosity, relative axial angles, etc., as well as of flow configurations and vectors, drive power, and stored gyre power in single main gyres and in the second and third tiers of empiricly fractal subgyres. --- The scalable empirical forces required development of over 20 new types of empirical equations and variable coefficients scaled to the diameter of the readily observable conic base turbulence zone. Below about scale factor 0.75 separation, repulsive forces between corotating gyres reverse as very much stronger attraction similar to that of contra-rotating gyres until reaching a mutual penetration limit near the drive cone radius. These forces were then scaled by factors up to 106 for the analysis of specific samples of documented tornadoes, tornado-generating storm supercells, and hurricanes; e.g., the scaled lab point thrust of a gyre can force the visible condensation cone of a tornado down to the surface against a vertical drag component of typical measured upflow, and the scaled lab turbulent gyre diameter predicts from satellite eye wind flow data the outer band diameter for multiple tornadoes in a major hurricane, etc. It is in these two lab data papers that the complex interactions of the gyres are explained. (See Paper 5 on turbulent conic gyre flow forms and Paper 6 on intergyre forces.)

    •Item 6 - More widely microscaling the empiricly scalable conic gyre data (somewhat similarly to solid state superconductive electron vortices) for calculation of internal and external electron structural forces. --- The combined point thrust of single gyres and the highly augmented attractions between all pairs of conic gyres at less than 0.75 scale factor separation scale as the strong force within and between all adjacent particles. Combined fractally generated forces off the outwardly faced, turbulent conic bases scale as charge shear forces external to the particle. Mutually augmented viscous eddies scale as residual mass energy shear effects. Here also the combined electron/quark gyre paradigm provides scaled empiricly necessary transphotic and superphotic pressure (vs shear) wave mechanisms for entanglement and for entangled resonance phenomena, thus resolving the unnecessary contradictions of the prior paradigm of an ideally perfect singularity at c which defeated all prior attempts at an electron structure. This also necessitates and provides an introductory quantitative paradigm for a thinly viscous, yet potentially massive, momentum-storing medium within which such a driving conic energy source as the gyres must embody could exist and disperse throughout the nominal vacuum the observed levels of energy/force/mass effect for the empirical electron/proton lifetimes, which are greater than the present accepted life of the big-bang universe. Thus the electron gyre paradigm in particular essentially matches the classical and quantum mechanical electron specifications required by a prior major structural analysis of the subphotic states of the electron for electrons at rest or at moderate velocities in atomic orbits. When accelerated to near c for collision experiments, the paradigm compresses the gyres and electron bodies to near the minimal drive cone size by stripping away peripheral flow structures in the acceleration through the medium. A mass gravity mechanism is also indicated. (See Paper 7.)

    • Item 7 - A similar paradigm for larger charged lepton and various neutrino structures over the full empiricly reported range of the lepton masses and the necessary neutrino masses from the PDG 2004 tau neutrino limit to current astrophysical estimates of degenerate microneutrinos. --- (See Paper 8 and the mass energy levels of Paper 1 and its appendices.)

    • Item 8 - A correlation of the electron and neutrino paradigms with a compatible paradigmatic mechanism for emission of a photon by an electron during the transition from a higher energy to a lower energy atomic orbit state. --- Here the photon is a stable isomericly excited form of the lowest mass microneutrino which impacts the electron in the quasi=stable more energetic orbit and triggers the descent to the lower orbit with release of the excess energy to the neutrino as it continues its prior motion at the speed of light (with its positively spinning gyre previously leading.) The relative 3D angles between the prior orbit path and the prior neutrino path are critical. Just any nearby neutrino will not do. (The electron is initially at its full subphotic volume and radius while in low speed orbit. The gyres of the neutrino are at their much smaller stripped volume and radius due to long prior acceleration to light speed maintained by the point thrust of its randomly selected, advantaged forward gyre.) The jerk of the impact and of the electron toward the new orbit slides the previously fully masked plus and minus electricly charged bases of the two gyres in the least neutrino across each other, past the corners of the bases into full exposure of their force fields in opposite directions, and then allows the mutual strong force attraction of the gyres to move them into their other stably parallel position in contact with each other along their sides with minimum separation of their centers of volume. (These intergyre forces and two stable bonding positions of minimum separation of gyre centers of volume are scaled from the vortex experiments in prior papers as quantified in the two dozen equations of the electron paper.) The full energy of the electron's descent between orbits is converted into the polarized rotation of the oppositely oriented charge forces of the two interlocked neutrino gyres at a quantized frequency of the polarized rotating electric standing waves they generate in relative phase through space fore and aft along and for a nominal half wave length radius surrounding the newly created photon flight path. (The positive gyre of the neutrino penetrates into and does not leave the original electron and the attractive forces of its negative gyres until the exposure of the active base of the repelled negative gyre is completed so that the photon fore-wave is initiated during the change of orbits before the photon is released by the combination of its momentum and repulsion of its negative gyre. This is an ongoing process along the electron's accelerated path between orbits.) Thus the photon is specificly a wave and a particle of two rotated and individually spinning vortices of smaller waves with a quasi-infinitely long lifetime of stored energy of their own. Since they are both moving jointly at the speed of light and rotating at a radius, they are moving faster then the speed of light and therefore do not accumulate mass energy waves as they would at that speed. Also, most of their volumes that would normally hold internal mass energy are stripped away in the medium, and they are one microneutrino in mass with a momentum both before and during their potentially quasi-infinite flight as a neutral photon with two oppositely charged gyre bases exposed in rotation of any polarization. The photon propagates only as the conjointed electric force waves and modified neutrino, which may at a pair of interference slits or a tiny wire exchange energy with another neutrino coming into the wave set at or near surfaces and/or set up a lasting interference between opposite side fringes of the broad wave front. Absorption of the entire energy of a photon by an electron essentially reverses the processes, but is dependent on the availability of a quantally resonant energy level for the electron to assume. The microneutrino mechanism for photons and the short duration of excited electron orbits require a sufficient density near star galaxies of these lowest mass, most stable, and most degraded residual form of neutrino that they may well form galactic haloes of dark gravitational matter accumulated over the life of the universe, and the energy constantly shed by their gyres and those of other galactic particulate matter may well constitute a realistic source of dark energy of a different type than the gravitationally attractive mass energies or the electrically charged energies. (See Paper 9.)

    EPILOGUE

    MORE GENERAL BACKGROUND COMMENTS

    For all its great successes, the quantum mechanics of the last century still has at least two large and widely acknowledged gaps in the center of its truly marvelous ability to predict and exploit the particles of atomic nature. The usual recognition of one of these gaps is focused on the question of why the quark building blocks of all the material atoms of the universe should have the masses they appear to have, and on the fact that our uncertainties in these masses for the two most important quarks (that do make up the neutrons and protons of the atomic nuclei of the cosmos) are equal to -- or greater than -- about thirty to fifty percent, depending on the choice of comparative reference. The other most obvious and simplest gap is the failure to resolve confusions on a structural size for the electron, that other major building block of the atoms. These disparities are heightened by the fact that the mass of the electron is most precisely known, to eight significant figures (about a millionth of a percent.)

    The papers of this website demonstrate that there exists within the empirical data amassed by the thousands of those who practice quantum mechanics, and largely consistent with its principles, a basis for filling both these gaps and also for providing a simple and straightforward understanding of why the arcane probabilistic mathematics of quantum mechanics should work so well among particles. Not even Feynman, one of QM's most brilliant innovators and analysts would attempt that. He told his students, "I don't understand it. Nobody understands it," implying that the experts of QM blindly work probabilities between black boxes. The proposed key to some of those boxes certainly came to the surface of the sea of QM data (compiled by the international Particle Data Group or PDG) as if by chance, and it caught the eye of its observing author while he was merely looking for a comprehendible overview of the QM data without knowing why he should be concerned with that broad complexity. He was only interested in the electron.

    It finally developed once again that no single part of the subatomic particle data tangle can be considered alone. This time the key comprehensive relation (equation) between all quark masses and all hadron particle masses (observed in an exploratory graph) led continuously to the critical additional relation between the quark masses and charges and those of the leptons (including the electron) as if they were all necessarily composed in a similar way of pairs of yet smaller uniform microquanta of generalized mass with two options of plus and minus 1/6 conserved electric charge. Comparison of the regularities of this extended quantitative relation with the raw empirical data from which it came revealed that at least two well separated and quantally exact quark masses are found to occur within the mass uncertainty range of each type of quark/antiquark, per previously published Paper 1 (2005). This offers a clear resolution of the quark mass uncertainties. The published appendix of this paper also found in the two principle forms of its equation the basis for a systematic series of exchangeable (oscillating) neutrino masses, as well as the basis in the dual masses of quarks for the exact series of baryon masses such as the Omega minus particles and the entire neutral Nucleon series based on the neutron at its lighter end. (In later papers synopsized above this structural systematics has been extended to all the PDG accredited series of baryons, and yet later to the lighter mesons as a sufficient example for the rest.) That this extension of the equations worked out over all the nominally elementary lepton/quark (LQ) particle masses and charges, and those of the baryons, only if there were exactly three pairs of six generalized, uniform, charged microquanta of mass in the electron was an interesting by-product in 3D symmetry indications for that particle. (This coupled well with the symmetry of the electric field of the static electron, and with its stable perfection as one of only four empirical particles, the electron/proton/photon/neutrino-class quartet, with inherent mean lifetimes that are an appreciable fraction of the present life of the universe or more. Here the changeable neutrino in its terminal cosmic microneutrino form and the red-shifted photon qualify in stability by being received on earth from supernova star explosions in extremely distant galaxies, but the neutron survives well only if stabilized by protons and thus does not qualify as a stable particle.)

    Previously published Paper 2 (2006) further systematized the LQ particle structures and their structural effects in the baryons with another analytic graph and an additional equation that progressively redefine both the sources of exceptional stability of the electron/proton/neutrino and the limitation of lepton and dual quark masses and charges to the particular combinations they are found to possess. This results in a new systematic classification of the massive subatomic particles (other than bosons.) That all this hangs together systematicly under basicly the same simple power/exponential law with minimal adaptation for various mass regions should provide a comprehendable systematics for all the empiricly observed, quantum mechanical particles of nature, and provide a basis for further, more theoretical QM development without the present LQ gaps.

    The presence of this systematics also highlights the fact that the rapidly growing exploitation of entanglement in research and promising technology demands a structural mechanism for its phenomena such as this structural paradigm straightforwardly provides. There is no longer a lack of hard evidence that some sub-particulate physical influences can and do propagate faster than the speed of light. It appears paradigmaticly that this must occur at a natural pressure wave velocity as distinct from a typically slower shear wave velocity for the more readily observable effects of light and gravity. The combination of this necessity with those of the lifetime prolonged exertion of electron charge and spin forces on other objects through distances (work) requires preliminary characteristics of the vacuum medium once again. If massive charged bodies can influence the medium (as gyres do in observable fluids), and Mach and Michelson are both right, perhaps another synthesis on the medium can begin here.

    Electron Physics

    FINAL INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS

    This Website presents a series of seven papers on proposed structures of the major sub-atomic particles which have been considered by most physicists to be indivisible elementary units of matter. As noted in the first paper, many other physicists have attempted to find suitable building blocks of which these particles might be composed. There is much empirical data that essentially requires some of them to be composites of more elemental sub-structural components. So does much published theory. There are some phenomena and theoretical practices that cannot now be correlated with structure at all. The difficulty is more of a conceptual lack than of a mathematically analytic deficit. The approach of the papers to be presented on this Website is based on a new conceptual insight which provides an initial, analyzable, and testable sub-structural plan for electrons, neutrinos, and quarks. It is expected that the conceptual plan, though somewhat hypothetical and not yet fully elaborated, is capable of future adaptation and extension in ways that might contribute toward continuing improvement of knowledge about these particles and their interactions.

    Electron Physics

    The first brief paper was not initially directly concerned with the new conceptual approach. Its subject arose unexpectedly as a side issue during a search for other information. However, it provides a phenomenological pattern of particle charge and mass relations which can be correlated with structural patterns of the main concept. The paper finds some empirical structural limitations and logical guideline requirements that may apply to any particle sub-structural approach.

    Neutrinos

    The second paper was also unexpected. In it the power law in the first paper leads to a new systematic classification of sub-atomic particles.

    Electron, Neutrinos & Quarks

    Perhaps these seven papers may stimulate other fruitful thinking on the necessity for composite sub-structure in those most fundamental particles of all known matter, the electron and neutrino leptons and quarks.

    This Website Creates
    A New Paradigm Auxiliary to Quantum Mechanics.
    To See its Basic Equation’s Impact on Particle Physics
    See www.particlephysics.info

    Electron Physics

     

    PAPERS

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