The gyres involved
in particles cannot be like the smoothly spiraled funnel of an ordinary
gravity-driven pressure vortex at an exit hole from a tub of water.
Nor can they be like a momentum-driven vortex at the edge of a strong
current in the air. They can only be centrally driven in a fluid by
a deeply immersed, viscous rotation source (like the heat engine at
the center of a hurricane or tornado.) Such 3D empiricly measured
gyres driven by cones exhibit symmetric angular zones of fractally
distinctive forces that scale to a first self-consistent structural
model of the electron/positron without singularities, including that
of its quasi-infinite empirical lifetime energy. This electron must
eventually run down like any real structure. In the meantime it supportively
matches the quantum mechanical requirements for its known particle
functions, but also provides a mechanism for particle entanglement
as a now established denial of an absolute and complete singularity
at c.
However, the electron
is only the oldest known, and most often humanly controlled, separate
particle of the three that QM can at present only designate as cosmicly
pre-existing. Aside from the symmetric beauty and structural effectiveness
of this vortical electron concept, its strength comes from its similar
suitability for the other QM leptons, especially the neutrinos, and
for the quarks. In fact the power law requirement for some such microquantum
of charged mass (which is a very generalized description of the most
limited and basic factors of particle function that a gyre can supply)
arises directly from the international Particle Data Group's biennial
(PDG) Summary Tables of QM particle charge and mass for quarks and
the baryons they construct.
As presented herein,
the gyre paradigm thus extends alike to all subatomic particles, including
the quarks which make up the proton and neutron components of the
nucleus of each atom. The resulting structure of the quark components
gives rise to the structural linkages of the entire nucleus. The same
basic mass law asymptoticly trends toward zero in an exponential extension
of the law for mass interactions at these largest mass levels. As
a result there is a subatomic structural continuum from the smallest
cosmic microneutrinos to the atomic nucleus within the electron orbit
shells.
The papers presented
herein are comprised of the following items:
• Item 1
- A spherical electron structure of coaxial pairs of 6 fractally complex,
corotating vortex gyres (Item 5 below.) that strongly interact with
mutual attraction in synchronized orthogonal orbits around a common
center in accordance with a universal power law equation (Items 2
& 3 below.) --- This equation relates the empirical number and
sum of component masses to the mass (with conserved charge) for every
type of subatomic particle. The mutual interaction generates the total
mass energy of the electron, its spin around a summation axis at arccos
1/√3 from each of the three orbital axes, and an even exterior
distribution of the distinctive charge force from the spinning and
orbitally revolving outward facing bases of the conic gyres with their
turbulent base subgyres. (There is none of the last century's Poincare'
internal charge repulsion stress.) The antiparticle positron charge
force arises likewise from the opposite sense of vortical and orbital
corotation of its gyres. (See Paper 7 in condensed and full formats.)
•Item 2
- The origin of the universal law of particle mass structure from
consideration of the PDG data on the 6 types of component empirical
quarks and the empirical baryons and mesons which the quarks compose.
--- In this more massive range of hadron particles and sums of unlike
quark component masses, the law acts exponentially on the component
number, asymptoticly rising toward
N_{c}^{5}
with reducing mass of the summed smallest up and down quarks in the
relatively small proton and neutron baryons and π
mesons. In the even less massive average range of lepton
and quark (LQ) particles the (initially generalized) components m_{c}
of positive and negative gyre masses are summed as N_{c} uniform
microquantal components m_{u} at 10.9525
electron-Volts (eV) of mass eergy each. The sum term then collects
to N_{c}^{6}, and the equation
operates as a power law with a corrective factor for charged n±
(vs neutral) pairs of n total pairs of gyres to generate
interaction masses m_{p} of the LQ particles
with at least two obligatory quark masses within the large PDG uncertainties
on masses of each of the 6 types of quarks. Thus in quarks/antiquarks,
neutrinos, and charged leptons (electrons, etc.):
m_{p}
= (2 m_{u}/3) (0.5 + n±/n) N_{c}^{6}
Combinations
of the dual quark masses account exactly in the exponential form of
the law for the proliferated series of baryons in a new classification
of all the massive subatomic particles (except bosons.) Impact oscillations
of neutrino masses are also accounted for. (See published Papers 1
and 2. Note: These two introductory papers were originally based entirely
on the PDG empirical data. Therefore, these papers did not include
the concept of a vortex gyre, but simply used generalized microquanta.
It is in the electron paper that the gyre is established as the ultimate
optimum mass microquantum with inherent charge force due to gyre rotation,
and that meaning of microquantum should now be understood in all these
papers.)
•Item 3 - A new paradigm for the structure of spherical quarks
from such microquantal uniform components orbitally interacting under
the power law as in the electron. --- This quark paradigm is then
extended to structures with the continued strong force properties
inside protons, neutrons, and other baryons (in their baryon series)
under the exponential form of the law:
m_{p}
=
N_{c}^{y }Σm_{c}
.
This
structure has 3 adjacent quark spheres with one orbital axis of each
perpendicular to the plane of their contacts and with their summation
axes aligned to a common point at the complement to arccos 1/√3
above that plane on a consequent baryon summation axis. A gyre orbit
for each quark in the plane of its own summation equator is extended
either circularly or elliptically (as balanced by interactive forces)
to lock these orbit planes in an orthogonal 3D corner around the baryon
sum axis through the corner point. These corners of self-adjusting
strong force orbits are irregularly sphere-like and join in sphere-like
atomic nuclear boxes (for tritium or alpha particles), ellipsoids,
and the like. In this last stage of large nuclear assembly between
baryon contact triads (or in forming baryons from the largest quarks)
the quark gyres are more widely spaced, the interaction exponent y
trends more toward zero, and the nuclear mass factor trends toward
one. (See Paper 3.)
•Item 4 - A similar paradigm of meson structures in two-plane
corners, etc., from quarks or similarly charged spherical fragments
of quarks after destructive impacts on baryons. --- As in the PDG
data, the larger mesons require two, four, or six quarks or power
law fragments to assemble under the exponential form of the law, including
components for the heavier light unflavored mesons from destroyed
strange baryons. Also at times quarks can break into several quarklets
and neutrinos; e.g., Nucleon N(1700) could reassemble as either of
the two strange quark masses plus typical other fragments. This accounts
for all the light mesons and for all fragments of any quark involved
in their assembly. In reverse all parts of baryons destroyed by impacts
can be tracked to mesons. (See Paper 3 also.)
•Item 5 - A quantified and validatable initial documentation
of widely scalable experimental mutual forces between symmetric and
limited asymmetric pairs of paradigmaticly suitable, viscously driven,
turbulent, immersed (and surface) conic vortices under multiply varied
conditions of gyre size, flow velocity, viscosity, relative axial
angles, etc., as well as of flow configurations and vectors, drive
power, and stored gyre power in single main gyres and in the second
and third tiers of empiricly fractal subgyres. --- The scalable empirical
forces required development of over 20 new types of empirical equations
and variable coefficients scaled to the diameter of the readily observable
conic base turbulence zone. Below about scale factor 0.75 separation,
repulsive forces between corotating gyres reverse as very much stronger
attraction similar to that of contra-rotating gyres until reaching
a mutual penetration limit near the drive cone radius. These forces
were then scaled by factors up to 10^{6}
for the analysis of specific samples of documented tornadoes, tornado-generating
storm supercells, and hurricanes; e.g., the scaled lab point thrust
of a gyre can force the visible condensation cone of a tornado down
to the surface against a vertical drag component of typical measured
upflow, and the scaled lab turbulent gyre diameter predicts from satellite
eye wind flow data the outer band diameter for multiple tornadoes
in a major hurricane, etc. It is in these two lab data papers that
the complex interactions of the gyres are explained. (See Paper 5
on turbulent conic gyre flow forms and Paper 6 on intergyre forces.)
•Item
6 - More widely microscaling the empiricly scalable conic gyre data
(somewhat similarly to solid state superconductive electron vortices)
for calculation of internal and external electron structural forces.
--- The combined point thrust of single gyres and the highly augmented
attractions between all pairs of conic gyres at less than 0.75 scale
factor separation scale as the strong force within and between all
adjacent particles. Combined fractally generated forces off the outwardly
faced, turbulent conic bases scale as charge shear forces external
to the particle. Mutually augmented viscous eddies scale as residual
mass energy shear effects. Here also the combined electron/quark gyre
paradigm provides scaled empiricly necessary transphotic and superphotic
pressure (vs shear) wave mechanisms for entanglement and for entangled
resonance phenomena, thus resolving the unnecessary contradictions
of the prior paradigm of an ideally perfect singularity at c
which defeated all prior attempts at an electron structure. This also
necessitates and provides an introductory quantitative paradigm for
a thinly viscous, yet potentially massive, momentum-storing medium
within which such a driving conic energy source as the gyres must
embody could exist and disperse throughout the nominal vacuum the
observed levels of energy/force/mass effect for the empirical electron/proton
lifetimes, which are greater than the present accepted life of the
big-bang universe. Thus the electron gyre paradigm in particular essentially
matches the classical and quantum mechanical electron specifications
required by a prior major structural analysis of the subphotic states
of the electron for electrons at rest or at moderate velocities in
atomic orbits. When accelerated to near c for collision experiments,
the paradigm compresses
the gyres and electron bodies to near the minimal drive cone size
by stripping away peripheral flow structures in the acceleration through
the medium. A mass gravity mechanism is also indicated. (See Paper
7.)
• Item 7
- A similar paradigm for larger charged lepton and various neutrino
structures over the full empiricly reported range of the lepton masses
and the necessary neutrino masses from the PDG 2004 tau neutrino limit
to current astrophysical estimates of degenerate microneutrinos. ---
(See Paper 8 and the mass energy levels of Paper 1 and its appendices.)
• Item
8 - A correlation of the electron and neutrino paradigms with a compatible
paradigmatic mechanism for emission of a photon by an electron during
the transition from a higher energy to a lower energy atomic orbit
state. --- Here the photon is a stable isomericly excited form of
the lowest mass microneutrino which impacts the electron in the quasi=stable
more energetic orbit and triggers the descent to the lower orbit with
release of the excess energy to the neutrino as it continues its prior
motion at the speed of light (with its positively spinning gyre previously
leading.) The relative 3D angles between the prior orbit path and
the prior neutrino path are critical. Just any nearby neutrino will
not do. (The electron is initially at its full subphotic volume and
radius while in low speed orbit. The gyres of the neutrino are at
their much smaller stripped volume and radius due to long prior acceleration
to light speed maintained by the point thrust of its randomly selected,
advantaged forward gyre.) The jerk of the impact and of the electron
toward the new orbit slides the previously fully masked plus and minus
electricly charged bases of the two gyres in the least neutrino across
each other, past the corners of the bases into full exposure of their
force fields in opposite directions, and then allows the mutual strong
force attraction of the gyres to move them into their other stably
parallel position in contact with each other along their sides with
minimum separation of their centers of volume. (These intergyre forces
and two stable bonding positions of minimum separation of gyre centers
of volume are scaled from the vortex experiments in prior papers as
quantified in the two dozen equations of the electron paper.) The
full energy of the electron's descent between orbits is converted
into the polarized rotation of the oppositely oriented charge forces
of the two interlocked neutrino gyres at a quantized frequency of
the polarized rotating electric standing waves they generate in relative
phase through space fore and aft along and for a nominal half wave
length radius surrounding the newly created photon flight path. (The
positive gyre of the neutrino penetrates into and does not leave the
original electron and the attractive forces of its negative gyres
until the exposure of the active base of the repelled negative gyre
is completed so that the photon fore-wave is initiated during the
change of orbits before the photon is released by the combination
of its momentum and repulsion of its negative gyre. This is an ongoing
process along the electron's accelerated path between orbits.) Thus
the photon is specificly a wave and a particle of two rotated and
individually spinning vortices of smaller waves with a quasi-infinitely
long lifetime of stored energy of their own. Since they are both moving
jointly at the speed of light and rotating at a radius, they are moving
faster then the speed of light and therefore do not accumulate mass
energy waves as they would at that speed. Also, most of their volumes
that would normally hold internal mass energy are stripped away in
the medium, and they are one microneutrino in mass with a momentum
both before and during their potentially quasi-infinite flight as
a neutral photon with two oppositely charged gyre bases exposed in
rotation of any polarization. The photon propagates only as the conjointed
electric force waves and modified neutrino, which may at a pair of
interference slits or a tiny wire exchange energy with another neutrino
coming into the wave set at or near surfaces and/or set up a lasting
interference between opposite side fringes of the broad wave front.
Absorption of the entire energy of a photon by an electron essentially
reverses the processes, but is dependent on the availability of a
quantally resonant energy level for the electron to assume. The microneutrino
mechanism for photons and the short duration of excited electron orbits
require a sufficient density near star galaxies of these lowest mass,
most stable, and most degraded residual form of neutrino that they
may well form galactic haloes of dark gravitational matter accumulated
over the life of the universe, and the energy constantly shed by their
gyres and those of other galactic particulate matter may well constitute
a realistic source of dark energy of a different type than the gravitationally
attractive mass energies or the electrically charged energies. (See
Paper 9.)
EPILOGUE
MORE GENERAL BACKGROUND COMMENTS
For
all its great successes, the quantum mechanics of the last century
still has at least two large and widely acknowledged gaps in the center
of its truly marvelous ability to predict and exploit the particles
of atomic nature. The usual recognition of one of these gaps is focused
on the question of why the quark building blocks of all the material
atoms of the universe should have the masses they appear to have,
and on the fact that our uncertainties in these masses for the two
most important quarks (that do make up the neutrons and protons of
the atomic nuclei of the cosmos) are equal to -- or greater than --
about thirty to fifty percent, depending on the choice of comparative
reference. The other most obvious and simplest gap is the failure
to resolve confusions on a structural size for the electron, that
other major building block of the atoms. These disparities are heightened
by the fact that the mass of the electron is most precisely known,
to eight significant figures (about a millionth of a percent.)
The papers of
this website demonstrate that there exists within the empirical data
amassed by the thousands of those who practice quantum mechanics,
and largely consistent with its principles, a basis for filling both
these gaps and also for providing a simple and straightforward understanding
of why the arcane probabilistic mathematics of quantum mechanics should
work so well among particles. Not even Feynman, one of QM's most brilliant
innovators and analysts would attempt that. He told his students,
"I don't understand it. Nobody understands it," implying
that the experts of QM blindly work probabilities between black boxes.
The proposed key to some of those boxes certainly came to the surface
of the sea of QM data
(compiled by the international Particle Data Group or PDG) as if by
chance, and it caught the eye of its observing author while he was
merely looking for a comprehendible overview of the QM data without
knowing why he should be concerned with that broad complexity. He
was only interested in the electron.
It finally developed
once again that no single part of the subatomic particle data tangle
can be considered alone. This time the key comprehensive relation
(equation) between all quark masses and all hadron particle masses
(observed in an exploratory graph) led continuously to the critical
additional relation between the quark masses and charges and those
of the leptons (including the electron) as if they were all necessarily
composed in a similar way of pairs of yet smaller uniform microquanta
of generalized mass with two options of plus and minus 1/6 conserved
electric charge. Comparison of the regularities of this extended quantitative
relation with the raw empirical data from which it came revealed that
at least two well separated and quantally exact quark masses are found
to occur within the mass uncertainty range of each type of quark/antiquark,
per previously published Paper 1 (2005). This offers a clear resolution
of the quark mass uncertainties. The published appendix of this paper
also found in the two principle forms of its equation the basis for
a systematic series of exchangeable (oscillating) neutrino masses,
as well as the basis in the dual masses of quarks for the exact series
of baryon masses such as the Omega minus particles and the entire
neutral Nucleon series based on the neutron at its lighter end. (In
later papers synopsized above this structural systematics has been
extended to all the PDG accredited series of baryons, and yet later
to the lighter mesons as a sufficient example for the rest.) That
this extension of the equations worked out over all the nominally
elementary lepton/quark (LQ) particle masses and charges, and those
of the baryons, only if there were exactly three pairs of six generalized,
uniform, charged microquanta of mass in the electron was an interesting
by-product in 3D symmetry indications for that particle. (This coupled
well with the symmetry of the electric field of the static electron,
and with its stable perfection as one of only four empirical particles,
the electron/proton/photon/neutrino-class quartet, with inherent mean
lifetimes that are an appreciable fraction of the present life of
the universe or more. Here the changeable neutrino in its terminal
cosmic microneutrino form and the red-shifted photon qualify in stability
by being received on earth from supernova star explosions in extremely
distant galaxies, but the neutron survives well only if stabilized
by protons and thus does not qualify as a stable particle.)
Previously published
Paper 2 (2006) further systematized the LQ particle structures and
their structural effects in the baryons with another analytic graph
and an additional equation that progressively redefine both the sources
of exceptional stability of the electron/proton/neutrino and the limitation
of lepton and dual quark masses and charges to the particular combinations
they are found to possess. This results in a new systematic classification
of the massive subatomic particles (other than bosons.) That all this
hangs together systematicly under basicly the same simple power/exponential
law with minimal adaptation for various mass regions should provide
a comprehendable systematics for all the empiricly observed, quantum
mechanical particles of nature, and provide a basis for further, more
theoretical QM development without the present LQ gaps.
The presence
of this systematics also highlights the fact that the rapidly growing
exploitation of entanglement in research and promising technology
demands a structural mechanism for its phenomena such as this structural
paradigm straightforwardly provides. There is no longer a lack of
hard evidence that some sub-particulate physical influences can and
do propagate faster than the speed of light. It appears paradigmaticly
that this must occur at a natural pressure wave velocity as distinct
from a typically slower shear wave velocity for the more readily observable
effects of light and gravity. The combination of this necessity with
those of the lifetime prolonged exertion of electron charge and spin
forces on other objects through distances (work) requires preliminary
characteristics of the vacuum medium once again. If massive charged
bodies can influence the medium (as gyres do in observable fluids),
and Mach and Michelson are both right, perhaps another synthesis on
the medium can begin here.
FINAL
INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS
This Website presents
a series of seven papers on proposed structures of the major sub-atomic
particles which have been considered by most physicists to be indivisible
elementary units of matter. As noted in the first paper, many other
physicists have attempted to find suitable building blocks of which
these particles might be composed. There is much empirical data that
essentially requires some of them to be composites of more elemental
sub-structural components. So does much published theory. There are
some phenomena and theoretical practices that cannot now be correlated
with structure at all. The difficulty is more of a conceptual lack
than of a mathematically analytic deficit. The approach of the papers
to be presented on this Website is based on a new conceptual insight
which provides an initial, analyzable, and testable sub-structural
plan for electrons, neutrinos, and quarks. It is expected that the
conceptual plan, though somewhat hypothetical and not yet fully elaborated,
is capable of future adaptation and extension in ways that might contribute
toward continuing improvement of knowledge about these particles and
their interactions.
The
first brief paper was not initially directly concerned with the new
conceptual approach. Its subject arose unexpectedly as a side issue
during a search for other information. However, it provides a phenomenological
pattern of particle charge and mass relations which can be correlated
with structural patterns of the main concept. The paper finds some
empirical structural limitations and logical guideline requirements
that may apply to any particle sub-structural approach.
The
second paper was also unexpected. In it the power law in the first
paper leads to a new systematic classification of sub-atomic particles.
Perhaps these
seven papers may stimulate other fruitful thinking on the necessity
for composite sub-structure in those most fundamental particles of
all known matter, the electron and neutrino leptons and quarks.